What does "passing through fire" mean in the Bible with reference to Moloch?

The term Molochis originated with the Phoenician mlk, which referred to a type of sacrifice made to confirm or acquit a vow. Melekh is the Hebrew word for “king.” It was common for the Israelites to combine the name of pagan gods with the vowels in the Hebrew word for shame: bosheth. This is how the goddess of fertility and war, Astarte, became Ashtoreth. The combination of mlkmelekh, and bosheth results in “Moloch,” which could be interpreted as “the personified ruler of shameful sacrifice.” It has also been spelled MilcomMilkimMalik, and Moloch. Ashtoreth was his consort, and ritual prostitution was considered an important form of worship.

The Phoenicians were a loosely gathered group of people who inhabited Canaan (modern-day Lebanon, Syria, and Israel) between 1550 BC and 300 BC. In addition to sexual rituals, Moloch worship included child sacrifice, or “passing children through the fire.” It is believed that idols of Moloch were giant metal statues of a man with a bull’s head. Each image had a hole in the abdomen and outstretched forearms that made a kind of ramp to the hole. A fire was lit in or around the statue. Babies were placed in the statue’s arms or in the hole. When a couple sacrificed their firstborn, they believed that Moloch would ensure financial prosperity for the family and future children.

Moloch/Molech worship wasn’t limited to Canaan. Monoliths in North Africa bear the engraving “mlk”—often written “mlk’mr” and “mlk’dm,” which may mean “sacrifice of lamb” and “sacrifice of man.” In North Africa, Moloch was renamed “Kronos.” Kronos migrated to Carthage in Greece, and his mythology grew to include his becoming a Titan and the father of Zeus. Moloch is affiliated with and sometimes equated to Ba’al, although the word ba’al was also used to designate any god or ruler.

In Genesis 12 Abraham followed God’s call to move to Canaan. Although human sacrifice was not common in Abraham’s native Ur, it was well-established in his new land. God later asked Abraham to offer Isaac as a sacrifice (Genesis 22:2). But then God distinguished Himself from gods like Moloch. Unlike the native Canaanite gods, Abraham’s God abhorred human sacrifice. God commanded Isaac to be spared, and He provided a ram to take Isaac’s place (Genesis 22:13). God used this event as an illustration of how He would later provide His own Son to take our place.

Over five hundred years after Abraham, Joshua led the Israelites out of the desert to inherit the Promised Land. God knew that the Israelites were immature in their faith and easily distracted from worshiping the one true God (Exodus 32). Before the Israelites had even entered Canaan, God warned them not to participate in Moloch worship (Leviticus 18:21) and repeatedly told them to destroy those cultures that worshiped Moloch. The Israelites didn’t heed God’s warnings. Instead, they incorporated Moloch worship into their own traditions. Even Solomon, the wisest king, was swayed by this cult and built places of worship for Moloch and other gods (1 Kings 11:1–8). Moloch worship occurred in the “high places” (1 Kings 12:31) as well as a narrow ravine outside Jerusalem called the Valley of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10).

Despite occasional efforts by godly kings, worship of Moloch wasn’t abolished until the Israelites’ captivity in Babylon. (Although the Babylonian religion was pantheistic and characterized by astrology and divination, it did not include human sacrifice.) Somehow, the dispersion of the Israelites into a large pagan civilization succeeded in finally purging them of their false gods. When the Jews returned to their land, they rededicated themselves to God, and the Valley of Hinnom was turned into a place for burning garbage and the bodies of executed criminals, it is also referred to as the gates of Hell. Jesus used the imagery of this place—an eternally burning fire, consuming countless human victims—to describe hell, where those who reject God will burn for eternity (Matthew 10:28).

What is the biblical significance of the number seven?

Throughout the Bible, God often gives symbolic significance to items and concepts. For example, in Genesis 9:12–16, God makes the rainbow the sign of His promise to Noah (and, by extension, to all mankind) that He will not flood the whole earth again. God uses bread as a representation of His presence with His people (Numbers 4:7); of the gift of eternal life (John 6:35); and of the broken body of Christ, sacrificed for mans sins (Matthew 26:26). The rainbow and the bread are symbols in Scripture. Less obvious meanings are attached to some numbers in the Bible, especially the number 7, which at times provides a special emphasis in the text.

The first use of the number 7 in the Bible relates to the creation week in Genesis 1. God spends six days creating the heavens and the earth, and then rests on the seventh day. This is a template for the seven-day week, observed around the world to this day. The seventh day was to be “set apart” for Israel; the Sabbath was a holy day of rest (Deuteronomy 5:12).

The number 7 is identified with something being “finished” or “complete.” From then on, that association continues, as 7 is often found in contexts involving completeness or divine perfection. There is a command for animals to be at least seven days old before being used for sacrifice (Exodus 22:30), the command for Naaman to bathe in the Jordan River seven times to effect complete cleansing of leprosy (2 Kings 5:10), the command for Joshua to march around Jericho for seven days (and on the seventh day to make seven circuits) and for seven priests to blow seven trumpets outside the city walls (Joshua 6:3–4). In these instances, 7 signifies a completion of some kind: a divine mandate is fulfilled.

Man was created on the sixth day of creation. In some passages of the Bible, the number 6 is associated with mankind. In Revelation “the number of the beast” is called “the number of a man. That number is 666 (Revelation 13:18). If God’s number is 7, then man’s is 6. Six always falls short of seven, just like “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23). Man is not God, just as 6 is not 7.

Series of seven things crop up often in the Bible, seven pairs of each clean animal on the ark (Genesis 7:2); seven stems on the tabernacle’s lamp stand (Exodus 25:37); seven qualities of the Messiah in Isaiah 11:2; seven signs in John’s Gospel; seven things the Lord hates in Proverbs 6:16; seven parables in Matthew 13; and seven woes in Matthew 23.

Multiples of 7 also figure into the biblical narrative: the “seventy weeks” prophecy in Daniel 9:24 concerns 490 years (times 7 times 10). Jeremiah 29:10 predicted the Babylonian Captivity would last for seventy years (7 times 10). According to Leviticus 25:8, the Year of Jubilee was to begin after the passing of every forty-ninth year (7times 7).

Sometimes, the symbolism of 7 is a great comfort: Jesus is the seven-fold “I AM” in the Gospel of John. Other times, it challenges us: Jesus told Peter to forgive a wrongdoer “seventy times seven” times (Matthew 18:22). There are passages in which the number 7 is associated with God’s judgment: the seven bowls of the Great Tribulation, (Revelation 16:1), or God’s warning to Israel in Leviticus 26:18.

In the book of Revelation, the number 7 is used more than fifty times in a variety of contexts: there are seven letters to seven churches in Asia Minor and seven spirits before God’s throne (Revelation 1:4), seven golden lamp stands (1:12), seven stars in Christ’s right hand (1:16), seven seals of God’s judgment (5:1), seven angels with seven trumpets (8:2), etc. The number 7 represents completeness or totality: the seven churches represent the completeness of the body of Christ, the seven seals on the scroll represent the fullness of God’s punishment of a sinful earth, and so on. The book of Revelation itself, with all its 7’s, is the capstone of God’s Word to man. With the book of Revelation, the Word was complete (Revelation 22:18).

In all, the number 7 is used in the Bible more than seven hundred times. If we also count the words related to seven (terms like sevenfold or seventy or seven hundred), the count is still higher. Not every instance of the number 7 in the Bible carries a deeper significance. Sometimes, a 7 is just a 7, and we must be cautious about attaching symbolic meanings to any text, especially when Scripture is not explicit about such meanings. However, there are times when it seems that God is communicating the idea of divine completeness, perfection, and wholeness by means of the number 7.

Did Moses have 2 horns?

Michelangelo’s statue of Moses on display in Vincoli, Rome, in the Basilica of St. Peter in Chains, depicts Moses with two horns on his head. This horned portrayal of Moses by Michelangelo and by other artists in other works of art and literature stems from a passage in the book of Exodus.

When Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the first set of stone tablets, he encountered the idolatry and immorality of the people. In rage Moses threw down the tablets, breaking them to pieces. After the people repented, God called Moses to climb Mount Sinai again, with new stone tablets to replace those he had broken:

“And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses’ hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him.” Exodus 34:29

When the people saw Moses’ shining face, they were afraid to go near him. “And when Aaron and all the children of Israel saw Moses, behold, the skin of his face shone; and they were afraid to come nigh him”. Exodus 34:30, So Moses covered his face with a veil, “And till Moses had done speaking with them, he put a vail on his face”. Exodus 34:33. There is nothing in this passage to warrant the idea that Moses had horns, yet this is where the idea comes from, because of a Latin translation.

The original Hebrew word used to describe the radiant skin of Moses’ face is qaran. A related word, qeren, means “horns,” as it refers to something that “projected outward” as horns do. However, the word qaran means “to shine” or “to send out rays.” The Hebrew wording used in Exodus 34 was meant to indicate that Moses’ face “sent forth rays of light” or “projected light.”

The Latin Vulgate translation by Jerome in the fourth century used the Latin word cornuta to describe Moses’ face. Cornuta, related to the word cornucopia (“horn of plenty”), means “horned.” Jerome, in saying that Moses was unaware that “his face had become horned,” was most likely expressing the fact that the skin of Moses’ face radiated with “strong horns of light.” But his wording led to overly literal interpretations by artists who assumed that Moses had actual horns protruding from his face when he descended Mount Sinai.

One English translation retains the “horns” wording in Exodus 34. The Catholic Douay-Rheims Bible translation of Exodus 34:29 says, “When Moses came down from the mount Sinai, he held the two tables of the testimony, and he knew not that his face was horned from the conversation of the Lord”. The reason that Moses has “horns” in the Douay-Rheims Translation is that the DRT was translated directly from the Latin Vulgate and not from the original Biblical languages.

The Septuagint (280—100 BC), the Ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, refers to the face of Moses as “glorified.” The apostle Paul confirms that this is the correct meaning:

“But if the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance; which glory was to be done away:” 2 Corinthians 3:7

It’s possible that Michelangelo and other ancient artists used horns symbolically, in the same way Jerome did in the Latin Vulgate, to visually illustrate rays of light in the form of horn-like protrusions. Although some anti-Semitic propaganda has since depicted Jews as having horns, Michelangelo’s sculpture of Moses did not represent anything negative or demonic.

In the Bible, horns often symbolize power, expressing domination of the weak (Ezekiel 34:21), the power of destruction (Zechariah 1:18–21), and deliverance from oppression (1 Kings 22:11; 2 Chronicles 18:10). The seven horns of the Lamb of God represent His infinite power (Revelation 5:6).

Moses did not have actual horns on his head. He had “a face of strength,” emanating rays of light after he talked with God. The Bible is clear about this, but a faulty translation of one verse—some would say an overly literal translation—amplified by classical artwork, has led to some confusion.

Speaking in Tongues

The first occurrence of speaking in tongues occurred on the day of Pentecost in Acts 2:1-4. The apostles went out and shared the gospel with the crowds, speaking to them in their own languages: “We hear them declaring the wonders of God in our own tongues!” (Acts 2:11). The Greek word translated tongues literally means “languages.” Therefore, the gift of tongues is speaking in a language a person does not know in order to minister to someone who does speak that language. In 1 Corinthians chapters 12–14, Paul discusses miraculous gifts, saying, “Now, brothers, if I come to you and speak in tongues, what good will I be to you, unless I bring you some revelation or knowledge or prophecy or word of instruction?” (1 Corinthians 14:6). According to the apostle Paul, and in agreement with the tongues described in Acts, speaking in tongues is valuable to the one hearing God’s message in his or her own language, but it is useless to everyone else unless it is interpreted/translated.

A person with the gift of interpreting tongues (1 Corinthians 12:30) could understand what a tongues-speaker was saying even though he did not know the language that was being spoken. The tongues interpreter would then communicate the message of the tongues speaker to everyone else, so all could understand. “Wherefore let him that speaketh in an unknown tongue pray that he may interpret.” 1 Corinthians 14:13. Paul’s conclusion regarding tongues that were not interpreted is powerful: “Yet in the church I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others also, than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue.” 1 Corinthians 14:19

“Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.” 1 Corinthians 13:6-10

There are those that use 1 Corinthians 14:8 to suggest speaking in tongues Is not for us today, nor is it even available by the Holy Spirit on the basis of this scripture. But that would take the context of this scripture completely out of context. The proper interpretation is when Jesus returns (“that which is perfect is come” – referring to the 2nd Advent of Christ) there would be no need for this or any other gift of the Spirit as mankind will have transitioned from having faith to having no more faith or need for such as man will now know firsthand all the things his faith informed. Man will have been in Heaven, seen Jesus physically, seen Heaven and the Host of it. Man will have a raptured body and the tools of our faith will have been replaced with actual knowledge and experience.

It’s important to note, some point to a difference in the tense of the Greek verbs referring to prophecy and knowledge “ceasing” and that of tongues “being ceased” as evidence for tongues ceasing before the arrival of the “perfect.” Some also point to passages such as Isaiah 28:11 and Joel 2:28-29 as evidence that speaking in tongues was a sign of God’s oncoming judgment. 1 Corinthians 14:22 describes tongues as a “sign to unbelievers.” According to this argument, the gift of tongues was a warning to the Jews that God was going to judge Israel for rejecting Jesus the Christ as Messiah. Therefore, when God did in fact judge Israel (with the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in A.D. 70), the gift of tongues would no longer serve its intended purpose. While this view is possible, the primary purpose of tongues being fulfilled does not necessarily demand its cessation. Scripture does not conclusively assert that the gift of speaking in tongues has ceased.

At the same time, if the gift of speaking in tongues were active in the church today, it would be performed in agreement with Scripture. It would be a real and intelligible language (1 Corinthians 14:10). It would be for the purpose of communicating God’s Word with a person of another language (Acts 2:6-12). It would be in agreement with the command God gave through the apostle Paul, “If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course; and let one interpret. But if there be no interpreter, let him keep silence in the church; and let him speak to himself, and to God.” 1 Corinthians 14:27-28. It would also be in accordance with 1 Corinthians 14:33“For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.”

God most definitely can give a person the gift of speaking in tongues to enable him or her to communicate with a person who speaks another language, or to speak Him in a manner that the Holy Spirit prayers to the Father directly to edify the speaking person and to pray the perfect prayer to God for the speaker about their condition or circumstance, or to pray for those around the world who the Spirit determines needs intercession, which is among the most common application of the gift. The Holy Spirit is sovereign in the dispersion of the spiritual gifts (1 Corinthians 12:11). Part of the evidence that this gift continues are the millions of people around the world who continue to operate in this gift. 

What does the forbidden fruit in the Bible really mean?

The phrase forbidden fruit has come to mean “something desirable but off limits.” The idea of forbidden fruit originated with the biblical account of the first man and woman, Adam and Eve, committing the first sin on earth. Genesis 3 gives the details of mankind’s first temptation. Satan, in the form of a serpent, convinced Eve that she had misunderstood God’s clearly stated command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil (Genesis 3:4–5). Satan first challenged her understanding of God’s words, then suggested that she should make her own decision based on her personal assessment that the forbidden fruit was “good,” “pleasing,” and “desirable” (verse 6). So, being deceived and acting contrary to God’s command (Genesis 2:16–17), Eve took the fruit and ate it. She gave the fruit to Adam, who ate some, too. At that moment, sin, death, and destruction entered into the world (Romans 5:12).

For centuries, people have wondered about the identity of this enticing fruit that caused so much trouble. The Hebrew word for “fruit” in this passage is peri, which is a generic term used for “produce,” “results,” or “reward.” Nowhere is the identity of the forbidden fruit given in Scripture. Some speculate that the idea of its being an apple may have begun when the Bible was translated into Latin. The Latin word for “apple” is mālum, which is very similar to another Latin word, mălum, which means “evil.” When the Latin Vulgate came into being, the similarity in words could have spawned the idea that apples represent evil.

Legend and art have also added to the common assumption that the forbidden fruit was an apple. We idiomatically refer to the larynx as the Adam’s apple, a term that originated from a folk tale wherein the bulge in a person’s neck was caused by the apple sticking in Adam’s throat. (Helping the legend along is the fact that the cartilaginous protrusion is more pronounced in men than in women.) Renaissance painters helped affix the identification of the forbidden fruit as an apple through their depictions of biblical stories mixed with mythology. Folklore tends to create a life of its own when people repeat as truth what began as suggestion.

What’s likely is that the fruit mentioned in Genesis 3 is no longer available on the earth. Even though the fruit itself was not evil—only the disobedience was—(Genesis 2:9; 3:24; Revelation 22:2).

The Centurion

During the New Testament era, a Roman centurion was a professional military officer commanding a platoon of troops called a “century.” This could be anywhere from nearly one hundred to several hundred men. Each Roman legion was composed of nearly 5,000 men, divided into multiple cohorts, each cohort composed of multiple centuries. As a result, a legion could contain as many as sixty centurions. Their importance was based on seniority, with the senior centurion in a legion being in a position of great prestige. Some historians have compared the top-level centurions to medieval knights. Roman centurions represented the bridge between enlisted troops and commissioned officers, in much the same way as warrant officers do in the modern U.S. military.

Soldiers were appointed as centurions by virtue of their bravery, loyalty, character, and prowess in battle. Centurions were held to high standards of conduct and were expected to fight on the front lines with their men. In fact, the centurion’s designated place in formation was at the end of the very front row. As a result, Roman centurions were well paid and held in high esteem, and they experienced high rates of injury and death during war. The combination of wealth, power, and prestige made them influential in society.

The Bible mentions several Roman centurions. The man overseeing Jesus’ crucifixion was a centurion (Matthew 27:54), one of lower seniority. It was a centurion who exclaimed at the foot of the cross, “Surely this man was the Son of God!” Mark 15:39Matthew 8:5–13 and Luke 7:1–10 relay the same story with different particulars of a centurion, likely of high rank, who approached Jesus for healing on behalf of his servant.

The royal official mentioned in John 4:43–54 was a high-ranking centurion, as well. In all cases, the centurions are noted for their position of authority. For these men to make a request of anyone, let alone Jesus, a Jew, would have required great faith and great humility.

Perhaps the most important Roman centurion mentioned in the Bible is Cornelius, described in Acts 10. Cornelius was said to have a good reputation with the Jewish people, in particular for his prayer and charity. “There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band, A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway.” Acts 10:1-2

According to the Bible, Cornelius saw an angelic vision telling him to seek Peter in Joppa. Cornelius was obedient to the vision, and Peter told him of his own vision, commanding him to evangelize Gentiles as well as Jews. Cornelius was saved during this encounter, becoming one of the first non-Jews evangelized in the early church era (Acts 11:15–18). The presence of the Holy Spirit in an uncircumcised, non-Jewish person—a Roman centurion, of all people—proved to the other Christians that the message of Christ was universal.

What year was each book of the Old Testament written?

The Old Testament is divided into five sections: the Pentateuch (Genesis through Deuteronomy), the historical books (Joshua through Esther), the poetic books (Job through Song of Solomon), the Major Prophets (Isaiah through Daniel), and the Minor Prophets (Hosea through Malachi). The Old Testament was written from approximately 1400 B.C. to approximately 400 B.C. The Old Testament was written primarily in Hebrew, with a few small sections written in Aramaic (essentially a variation of Hebrew).

The Old Testament deals primarily with the relationship between God and the nation of Israel. The Pentateuch deals with the creation of Israel and God establishing a covenant relationship with Israel. The historical books record Israel’s history, its victories and successes along with its defeats and failures. The books give us a more intimate look at God’s relationship with Israel and His passion for Israel to worship and obey Him. The prophetic books are God’s call to Israel to repent from its idolatry and unfaithfulness and to return to a relationship of obedience and spiritual fidelity.

We have a few basic ways of knowing when the individual books of the Bible were written: a combination of internal and external evidence and, particularly in the Old Testament, traditional accounts.

Internal evidence might consist of the style of writing and mentions of people or places who can be more precisely dated. For example, while the book of Ruth is set during the time of the judges, scholars place the literary style as that of the time of the Israelite monarchy—the Kings—based on other writings more accurately dated to that time. The mention of David (Ruth 4:17, 22) also implies a date some time after David’s reign.

Another example: the book of Daniel uses a literary style and specific Persian and Greek words that place it around the time of Cyrus the Great (ca. 530 B.C.). Linguistic evidence from the Dead Sea Scrolls gives us authentically dated examples of Hebrew and Aramaic writing from the second and third centuries B.C., when Daniel was written.

Other internal evidence might be the concerns the author is addressing. For example, the two books of Chronicles tell the history of the Jewish people and how they came under God’s judgment in the form of the exile to Babylon. Traditionally, believed Ezra to be the author of these books, because the following two books, Ezra and Nehemiah (also written by Ezra), deal with the return from exile and the need to be obedient to God’s law, and they are written in nearly the same literary style.

The date of that return, which began under Cyrus the Great, can be correlated to historical records outside the Bible that place his reign from approximately 559 to 530 B.C. The dedication of the new temple in Jerusalem, in 516 B.C., is corroborated by the records of Darius I, and a second return of exiles was allowed under Artaxerxes I, whom we know ruled Babylon from 465 to 424 B.C. All these things help us to closely place the writings of those particular books of the Old Testament. Biblical cross-referencing is used to date other books of the Old Testament.

In the New Testament, books are generally dated by the concerns being addressed, e.g., the growing Gnostic heresy, and how much they quote from other New Testament writings and a cross-referencing of events such as the collection for the needy in Jerusalem discussed in Romans and 1 and 2 Corinthians. We also have historical, extra-biblical accounts such as that by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus to corroborate events described in the Bible.

The Gospels are often dated by something that is not mentioned: Jesus predicted the fall of Jerusalem in Matthew 24:1-2, and we know from historians such as Josephus that the city fell in A.D. 70. It seems logical that if such a prominent prophecy had been fulfilled before the writing of the Gospels that it would have been mentioned, as is the fulfilled prophecy of Christ’s resurrection as found in John 2:19, 22.

It’s important to note that even among scholars who believe the Bible to be God’s inspired, inerrant Word there is some disagreement as to the exact dating of the biblical books.

What are the prophecies that have already been fulfilled?

The Bible is the story of human history and God’s work in it. The most significant event in human history is the death and resurrection of Jesus the Christ. The story of this event permeates the text of Scripture. The creation account shows God’s sovereignty over His creation. The fall shows us why we need a savior. The history of Israel shows two significant things: 1) the historical context of the coming of the Son of God incarnate, and 2) humanity’s inability to save itself through works, thus, its need for a savior.

The gospels tell the story of Jesus the Savior on earth, and much of the rest of the New Testament teaches how to live in this age in light of Jesus’ work on mans behalf. The prophecies of the Bible, particularly in Daniel and Revelation and also elsewhere, show what Jesus as Savior is saving man to (eternal paradise) and from (eternal damnation in hell).

The story of Jesus embodies the metanarrative of the Bible, and prophecies of His first advent are found throughout the Old Testament. Allusions to Him also come up in micro ways, as many people and events hint at the work He would accomplish. There are as many as 574 verses in the Old Testament that somehow point to or describe or reference the coming Messiah. There are 456 Old Testament verses referring to the Messiah or His times. Conservatively, Jesus fulfilled at least 300 prophecies in His earthly ministry.

The question of how many prophecies Jesus fulfilled is difficult to answer with precision. There are direct messianic prophecies, There are allusions and indirect references to the ministry of Christ. There are types? A type is a prophetic symbol: a person or thing in the Old Testament that foreshadows a person or thing in the New Testament. While Isaiah prophesies the Lord will offer good news for the brokenhearted (Isaiah 61:1), Boaz lives this out, acting as a type of Christ (Ruth 4:1–11).

Below is an attempt to list the types and prophecies given in the Old and New Testaments that Jesus has fulfilled. Undoubtedly, it is not complete.

Adam is a type of Christ because both their actions affected a great many people. Genesis 3:17-19; Romans 5:14

Jesus is the fulfillment of the Passover Lamb. Exodus 12:1-11; John 1:29-36

The rock that produced water for Israel points toward Jesus and the living water. Exodus 17:6; John 4:10; 1 Corinthians 10:3-4

The tabernacle where God dwelt among the Israelites is a type of Jesus, God with us. Exodus 25:8; Isaiah 7:14; 8:8, 10; Matthew 1:21-23; John 1:14; 14:8-11

The feast of unleavened bread represents the purity of Jesus; Jesus’ burial is like a kernel in the ground, waiting to burst forth in life. Leviticus 23:6; 1 Peter 2:22

The feast of first fruits represents Jesus as the first fruit from the dead. Leviticus 23:10; 1 Corinthians 15:20

Those who looked up at the snake on a pole were saved. Those who “look up” at Jesus on the cross are saved. Numbers 21:8-9; John 3:14-15

Boaz is a type of Christ the redeemer. Ruth 4:1-11; Ezekiel 16:8; Galatians 3:13; 4:5; Colossians 1:14

Jonah was in the fish for three days. Jesus’ body was in the grave for three days and three nights. Jonah 1:17; Matthew 12:40

The serpent and the “seed” of Eve will have conflict; the offspring of the woman will crush the serpent. Jesus is this seed, and He crushed Satan at the cross. Genesis 3:14-15; Galatians 4:4; Hebrews 2:14

God promised Abraham the whole world would be blessed through him. Jesus, descended from Abraham, is that blessing. Genesis 12:3; Acts 3:25-26; Matthew 1:1; Galatians 3:16

God promised Abraham He would establish an everlasting covenant with Isaac’s offspring. Jesus is that offspring. Genesis 17:19; Matthew 1:1-2

God promised Isaac the whole world would be blessed by his descendent. That descendent is Jesus. Genesis 28:13-14; Matthew 1:1-2; Luke 1:33; 3:23-34

Jacob prophesied Judah would rule over his brothers. Jesus is from the tribe of Judah. Genesis 49:10; Matthew 1:1-2; Luke 1:32-33

The Jews were not to keep the Passover lamb overnight. Jesus was buried the day He died. Exodus 12:10; Numbers 9:12; John 19:38-42

The Jews were not to break the bones of the Passover lamb. Jesus’ bones were not broken on the cross. Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; John 19:31-36

The Jews were to devote the firstborn males to God. Jesus is Mary’s firstborn male; He is also the “firstborn” over creation and the “firstborn” of the dead. Exodus 13:2; Numbers 3:13; 8:17; Luke 2:7, 23; Colossians 1:15-18

Moses promised another prophet like him would come. Jesus is that prophet. Deuteronomy 18:15, 18-19; Matthew 21:11; Luke 7:16; 24:19; John 6:14; 7:40

God told the Jews to never leave the body of someone who had been hanged overnight. Jesus was buried the day He died. Deuteronomy 21:23; John 19:31-36; Galatians 3:13

The word of God will be in hearts and mouths. Jesus is the Word who is in the hearts of His followers. Deuteronomy 30:14; John 1:1; Matthew 26:26

Moses promised God would atone for His people. Jesus’ sacrifice is that atonement. Deuteronomy 32:43; Romans 3:25; Hebrews 2:17

God promised David his offspring would rule forever. Jesus is descended from David, although His literal reign has yet to begin. 2 Samuel 7:12-13, 16, 25-26; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14, 23-27; Psalm 89:3-4, 35-37; 132:11; Isaiah 9:7 Matthew 1:6; 19:28; 21:4; 25:31; Mark 12:37; Luke 1:32; 3:31

The nations, people, and rulers plot against the Lord and His anointed. The Sanhedrin, the crowd, Herod Antipas, and Pilate plotted against Jesus. Psalm 2:1-2; Matthew 12:14; 26:3, 4, 47; Luke 23:1, 7

God will tell someone He is their Father. God told the crowd at Jesus’ baptism that He is Jesus’ Father. Psalm 2:7; Matthew 3:17; 17:5; Mark 1:11; 9:7; Luke 3:22; 9:35

David believes God will not abandon him to the grave. Jesus rose from the grave. Psalm 16:9-10; 30:3; 86:13; Isaiah 26:19; Luke 24:6-8; John 20

David cries out that God has forsaken him. Jesus uses the same words on the cross. Psalm 22:1; Matthew 27:46

David says his enemies mock and insult him. Jesus endured the same on the cross. Psalm 22:7; Matthew 27:38-44

David’s tormentors tease him, telling him to have God rescue him. The people said the same to Jesus. Psalm 22:7; Luke 23:35, 39

David describes his physical torment. The description matches the condition of someone who is being crucified. Psalm 22:14-15; John 19:28

David says that “dogs” surround him and pierce his hands and feet. Gentile soldiers put nails through Jesus’ hands and feet. Psalm 22:16; John 19:16; 20:20; Acts 2:23

David says that others divide his clothing. The Roman soldiers took Jesus’ clothes. Psalm 22:18; John 19:23-24

David says false witnesses will testify against him. False witnesses did testify against Jesus, although they didn’t have matching stories. Psalm 27:12; 35:11; 109:6; Matthew 26:60; Mark 14:55-59

David says he commits his spirit to God. Jesus used the same words on the cross. Psalm 31:5; Luke 23:46

God will protect the bones of the righteous. Jesus’ bones were not broken on the cross. Psalm 34:20; John 19:31-36

David talks of being hated without reason. Jesus was hated without reason. Psalm 35:19; 69:4; John 15:24-25

The psalmist says his friends will abandon him. The disciples abandoned Jesus. Psalm 38:11; 88:18; Matthew 26:56-58; Mark 14:50

David says he has come to do God’s will. Jesus came to do God’s will. Psalm 40:6-8; Matthew 26:39, 42; John 6:38; Hebrews 10:5-9

David talks about being betrayed by a friend. Jesus was betrayed by Judas. Psalm 41:9; 55:12-14; Matthew 26:14-16, 23; Mark 14:10-11, 43

The psalmists say God will rescue them from the land of the dead. God resurrected Jesus. Psalm 49:15; 86:13Mark 16:6; Luke 24:6-8; John 20

The Lord ascends on high, bringing captives with Him. Jesus ascended to heaven, and believers go to heaven. Psalm 68:18; Luke 23:43; 24:51; Acts 1:9

David says he will be rejected by his siblings. Jesus’ brothers refused to believe who He was until after the resurrection. Psalm 69:8; Mark 3:20-21, 31; John 7:3-5

David has “zeal” for God’s house and His honor but will be reproached. Jesus showed that zeal by cleaning out the temple and was questioned by the Sanhedrin members. Psalm 69:9; Mark 11:15-17, 27-28; John 2:13-18; Romans 15:3

David talks of being fed gall and vinegar. Jesus was offered gall and vinegar on the cross. Psalm 69:21; Matthew 27:34, 48; Mark 15:23; Luke 23:36; John 19:29

Solomon asks God for foreign kings to bring him gifts and honor. The magi did so for Jesus. Psalm 72:10-11; Matthew 2:1-11

Solomon tells God that as king he will deliver the needy and weak. Jesus did this. Psalm 72:12-14; Luke 7:22

The psalmist says he will speak in parables. Jesus spoke in parables. Psalm 78:2; Matthew 13:3, 35

God says He will make David His firstborn. Jesus, David’s descendent, is God’s firstborn. Psalm 89:27; Romans 8:29; Colossians 1:15

David’s enemies attacked him, but he refrained from responding. Jesus forgave His enemies. Psalm 109:3-5; Matthew 5:44; Luke 23:34

David asks that his betrayer’s life be short and his position be taken. Jesus’ betrayer, Judas, died, and Matthias took his place. Psalm 69:25; 109:7-8; Acts 1:16-20

David says his Lord will be made a priest of Melchizedek. Jesus is a priest of Melchizedek. Psalm 110:4; Hebrews 5:1-6; 6:20; 7:15-17

The psalmist says the stone the builders reject will become the cornerstone. Jesus was rejected by the Jewish leaders, but He is the basis of God’s salvation. Psalm 118:22-23, Matthew 21:42; Mark 12:10-11; Luke 20:17; John 1:11

The Lord will redeem Israel from her sins. Jesus redeemed Israel. Psalm 130:7-8; Matthew 1:21; Luke 1:68

God told Ezekiel the people would not understand what He was doing. Jesus used parables to keep casual observers from understanding His teaching.Isaiah 6:9-10; Matthew 13:14-15

God promised that a virgin would conceive. Mary was a virgin when Jesus was conceived. Isaiah 7:14; Luke 1:26-35

God promised to send a Son who would be “God with us” (“Emmanuel”). Jesus is that Son. Isaiah 7:14; 8:8, 10; Matthew 1:21-23; John 1:14; 14:8-11

God promised a “stone” that people would trip over. Jesus is that stone. Isaiah 8:14-15; Matthew 21:42-44; Romans 9:32-33

God promised the land of Zebulun and Naphtali and “Galilee of the nations” a light for their darkness. Jesus is that light; at the time of Jesus, Galilee was a mix of Jews and Gentiles. Isaiah 9:1-2; Matthew 4:12-16

God promised David His Spirit would rest on his offspring. Jesus is that offspring. Isaiah 11:1-2; Matthew 1:1, 6; 3:16; Mark 1:10

Gentiles will come to God. A centurion and a Syrophoenician woman came to Jesus; the Gentiles in Pisidian Antioch responded to Paul’s gospel message. Isaiah 11:10; 42:1; 55:4-5; Hosea 2:23; Matthew 8:5-13; Mark 7:24-26; Acts 13:48

God promised a time when the blind would see. Jesus healed the blind. Isaiah 29:18; 35:5; Matthew 9:30; 11:5; 12:22; 20:34; 21:14; Mark 10:52

God promised a time when the deaf hear. Jesus healed the deaf. Isaiah 35:5; Matthew 11:5; Mark 7:31-37; 9:25

God promised a time when the lame would be healed. Jesus healed the lame. Isaiah 35:6; Matthew 15:30-31; 21:14

God promised a time when the mute would speak. Jesus healed the mute. Isaiah 35:6; Matthew 9:33; 12:22; 15:30; Luke 11:14

God promised a messenger who would announce the Lord’s coming. John the Baptist is that messenger. Isaiah 40:3-5; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 3:3; 11:10; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4-6

God is the shepherd who tends His sheep. Jesus is the good shepherd. Isaiah 40:10-11; John 10:11

God promised to put His Spirit on His servant. Jesus is that servant. Isaiah 42:1; Matthew 3:16; 12:18; Mark 1:10

God’s servant will not cry out. Jesus told those He healed to remain quiet. Isaiah 42:2; Matthew 12:19

God’s servant will be gentle. Jesus treated people gently. Isaiah 42:3; Matthew 11:29; 12:20

The nations will put their hope in God’s servant’s teaching. Nations put their hope in Jesus’ teachings. Isaiah 42:4; Matthew 12:21

God will send His servant as a light to the Gentiles. Jesus is a light to the Gentiles. Isaiah 42:6; 49:6; Luke 2:25-32

The writer says he will not be rebellious or turn away. Jesus obeyed God all the way to the cross. Isaiah 50:5; Matthew 26:39

Isaiah speaks of one who will be beaten and spit upon. Jesus was beaten and spit upon. Isaiah 50:6; Matthew 26:67; 27:26-30

The Suffering Servant will be so abused He will not look human. Jesus was beaten, whipped, crucified, and pierced by a spear. Isaiah 52:14; Matthew 26:67; 27:26-30; 35

The Suffering Servant will be despised and rejected by His own people. Jesus’ tormentors rejected Him and spit in His face. Isaiah 53:3; Luke 23:18; Matthew 26:67; John 1:11

The Suffering Servant will bear the abuse we deserve for our physical and spiritual healing. Jesus did this. Isaiah 53:4-5; Matthew 8:17; Romans 5:6-8; 1 Corinthians 15:3

The Suffering Servant will bear our sins. Jesus bore our sins. Isaiah 53:6, 8, 12; Romans 4:25; 1 Peter 2:24-25

The Suffering Servant is like a lamb that does not defend itself. Although Jesus spoke during His trials, He never offered a defense. Isaiah 53:7; Matthew 27:12; Luke 23:9; John 1:29-36

The Suffering Servant’s people did not protest His death. Only Pilate protested Jesus’ death. Isaiah 53:8; Matthew 27:23-25

The Suffering Servant will die with the wicked. Jesus died with the two thieves. Isaiah 53:9, 12; Matthew 27:38; Mark 15:27

The Suffering Servant will be buried in the grave of a rich man. Jesus was buried in the grave of Joseph of Arimathea. Isaiah 53:9, Matthew 27:57-60

God ordained that the Suffering Servant would suffer and die. God sent Jesus to die. Isaiah 53:10; John 3:16; 19:11; Acts 2:23; Philippians 2:8

The Suffering Servant’s sacrifice offers forgiveness of sins. Jesus’ sacrifice offers forgiveness of our sins. Isaiah 53:11; Acts 10:43; 13:38-39

The Suffering Servant will intercede for His abusers. Jesus asked God to forgive those who crucified Him. Isaiah 53:12; Luke 23:34

God promises a great light to pierce the darkness of Israel and the nations. Jesus is that light. Isaiah 60:1-3; Matthew 4:16; Luke 2:32; John 12:46

God promises someone to declare good news for the brokenhearted, captives, and prisoners. Jesus is that someone. Isaiah 61:1; Matthew 3:16; Luke 4:18

God promises a “righteous Branch” from the line of Jesse who will do what is just. Jesus is that Branch. Jeremiah 23:5-6; 33:15-16; Romans 3:22; 1 Corinthians 1:30

A woman will weep for her dead children. Herod killed the baby boys in Bethlehem. Jeremiah 31:15; Matthew 2:16-18

God makes a woman “encircle” or protect a man. The Holy Spirit conceived Jesus in Mary. Jeremiah 31:22; Matthew 1:20; Luke 1:35

God promises a new covenant. Jesus provides the work for that new covenant. Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; 32:37-40; 50:5; Matthew 26:27-29; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:15-20

“David” will return as his people’s shepherd. Jesus is that shepherd. Ezekiel 34:23-24; 37:24; John 10:11

Gabriel tells Daniel when the “Anointed One” will be “cut off.” This is the exact time Jesus is crucified. Daniel 9:24-26; Matthew 27:50

God will call His “child” from Egypt. Jesus returned from Egypt when He was young. Hosea 11:1; Matthew 2:13-15

Israel’s ruler will be struck on the cheek with a rod. Jesus was struck on the head with a staff. Micah 5:1; Matthew 27:30

The ruler of Israel will come from Bethlehem. Jesus was born in Bethlehem. Micah 5:2; Luke 2:4-7

God will live among His people. Jesus lived among the Jews. Zechariah 2:10; John 1:14

The Branch will be a priest in the temple. Jesus is a priest in the order of Melchizedek. Zechariah 6:12-13; Hebrews 7:11-28; 8:1-2

Israel’s king will ride a donkey. Jesus came into Jerusalem riding a donkey. Zechariah 9:9; Mark 11:1-10

God told Zechariah to take the thirty pieces of silver he earned and throw it to the potter. Judas took thirty pieces of silver and returned it to the priests who used it to buy the potter’s field. Zechariah 11:12-13; Matthew 26:14-15; 27:3, 6-10

If someone strikes the shepherd, the sheep will scatter. When Jesus was arrested, His disciples fled. Zechariah 13:6-7; Matthew 26:56; Mark 14:50

The Lord will come to the temple and refine the silver and the priests. Jesus came to the temple and threw out the money changers. Malachi 3:1-3; Matthew 21:12; Mark 11:15-19; John 2:13-16

The sun of righteousness will come. Jesus is that sun. Malachi 4:2; Luke 1:78

Elijah will return. John the Baptist fulfills the role of Elijah. Malachi 4:5; Matthew 11:13-14; Mark 9:11-13; Luke 1:17; 7:27-28

Jesus said He will suffer and die. Before the crucifixion, both the priests’ guards and the Roman soldiers beat Jesus. Matthew 16:21; Mark 8:31; Luke 22:63-65; Mark 14:53, 65; 15:33-37; John 19:1

Jesus said He will be handed over on the Passover. He was handed over at night, after Galileans celebrated the Passover but before Judeans do. Matthew 26:2; John 19:14-16

Jesus said one of His disciples will betray Him. Judas betrayed Him. Matthew 26:21-22; Luke 22:47-48

Jesus said the disciples will scatter. They did at His arrest. Matthew 26:31; Mark 14:27; Matthew 26:56; Mark 14:50

Jesus said Peter will deny Him. Peter did so at the trial before Caiaphas. Matthew 26:33-34; Matthew 26:69-75

Jesus said He will be handed over, killed, and rise again on the third day. Mark 9:30-31; 10:32-34; John 18-20

Jesus said He will be delivered to the chief priests and scribes, killed, and rise again three days later. Mark 10:32-34; John 18-20

Simeon said Jesus will cause many hearts to be revealed. The Sanhedrin was revealed to be jealous. Luke 2:35, Matthew 27:18

Simeon told Mary her soul will be pierced because of Jesus. She witnessed the crucifixion. Luke 2:35; John 19:25-27

Jesus said He will rebuild the “temple” (His body) after three days. He rose from the dead after three days. John 2:18-22; Acts 10:40; 1 Corinthians 15:4

How many different names does God have in Genesis?

Each of the many names of God describes a different aspect of His many-faceted character. Here are some of the better-known names of God in the Bible:

EL, ELOAH [el, el-oh-ah]: God “mighty, strong, prominent” (Nehemiah 9:17; Psalm 139:19) – etymologically, El means “power” and “might” (Genesis 31:29). El is associated with other qualities, such as integrity (Numbers 23:19), jealousy (Deuteronomy 5:9), and compassion (Nehemiah 9:31), but the root idea of “might” remains.

ELOHIM [el-oh-heem]: God “Creator, Mighty and Strong” (Genesis 17:7; Jeremiah 31:33) – the plural form of Eloah, which accommodates the doctrine of the Trinity. From the Bible’s first sentence, the superlative nature of God’s power is evident as God (Elohim) speaks the world into existence (Genesis 1:1).

EL SHADDAI [el-shah-dahy]: “God Almighty,” “The Mighty One of Jacob” (Genesis 49:24; Psalm 132:2,5) – speaks to God’s ultimate power over all.

ADONAI [ˌædɒˈnaɪ; ah-daw-nahy]: “Lord” (Genesis 15:2; Judges 6:15) – used in place of YHWH, which was thought by the Jews to be too sacred to be uttered by sinful men. In the Old Testament, YHWH is more often used in God’s dealings with His people, while Adonai is used more when He deals with the Gentiles.

YHWH / YAHWEH / JEHOVAH [yah-way / ji-hoh-veh]: “LORD” (Deuteronomy 6:4; Daniel 9:14) – strictly speaking, the only proper name for God. Translated in English Bibles “LORD” (all capitals) to distinguish it from Adonai, “Lord.” The revelation of the name is given to Moses “I Am that I Am” (Exodus 3:14). This name specifies an immediacy, a presence. YHWH is present, accessible, near to those who call on Him for deliverance (Psalm 107:13), forgiveness (Psalm 25:11) and guidance (Psalm 31:3).

YAHWEH-JIREH [yah-way-ji-reh]: “The Lord Will Provide” (Genesis 22:14) – the name memorialized by Abraham when God provided the ram to be sacrificed in place of Isaac.

YAHWEH-RAPHA [yah-way-raw-faw]: “The Lord Who Heals” (Exodus 15:26) – “I am Jehovah who heals you” both in body and soul. In body, by preserving from and curing diseases, and in soul, by pardoning iniquities.

YAHWEH-NISSI [yah-way-nee-see]: “The Lord Our Banner” (Exodus 17:15), where banner is understood to be a rallying place. This name commemorates the desert victory over the Amalekites in Exodus 17.

YAHWEH-M’KADDESH [yah-way-meh-kad-esh]: “The Lord Who Sanctifies, Makes Holy” (Leviticus 20:8; Ezekiel 37:28) – God makes it clear that He alone, not the law, can cleanse His people and make them holy.

YAHWEH-SHALOM [yah-way-shah-lohm]: “The Lord Our Peace” (Judges 6:24) – the name given by Gideon to the altar he built after the Angel of the Lord assured him he would not die as he thought he would after seeing Him.

YAHWEH-ELOHIM [yah-way-el-oh-him]: “LORD God” (Genesis 2:4; Psalm 59:5) – a combination of God’s unique name YHWH and the generic “Lord,” signifying that He is the Lord of Lords.

YAHWEH-TSIDKENU [yah-way-tzid-kay-noo]: “The Lord Our Righteousness” (Jeremiah 33:16) – As with YHWH-M’Kaddesh, it is God alone who provides righteousness (from the Hebrew word tsidkenu) to man, ultimately in the person of His Son, Jesus Christ, who became sin for us “that we might become the Righteousness of God in Him” (2 Corinthians 5:21).

YAHWEH-ROHI [yah-way-roh-hee]: “The Lord Our Shepherd” (Psalm 23:1) – After David pondered his relationship as a shepherd to his sheep, he realized that was exactly the relationship God had with him, and so he declares, “Yahweh-Rohi is my Shepherd. I shall not want” (Psalm 23:1).

YAHWEH-SHAMMAH [yah-way-sham-mahw]: “The Lord Is There” (Ezekiel 48:35) – the name ascribed to Jerusalem and the Temple there, indicating that the once-departed glory of the Lord (Ezekiel 8—11) had returned (Ezekiel 44:1-4).

YAHWEH-SABAOTH [yah-way-sah-bah-ohth]: “The Lord of Hosts” (Isaiah 1:24; Psalm 46:7) – Hosts means “hordes,” both of angels and of men. He is Lord of the host of heaven and of the inhabitants of the earth, of Jews and Gentiles, of rich and poor, master and slave. The name is expressive of the majesty, power, and authority of God and shows that He is able to accomplish what He determines to do.

EL ELYON [el-el-yohn]: “Most High” (Deuteronomy 26:19) – derived from the Hebrew root for “go up” or “ascend,” so the implication is of that which is the very highest. El Elyon denotes exaltation and speaks of absolute right to lordship.

EL ROI [el-roh-ee]: “God of Seeing” (Genesis 16:13) – the name ascribed to God by Hagar, alone and desperate in the wilderness after being driven out by Sarah (Genesis 16:1-14). When Hagar met the Angel of the Lord, she realized she had seen God Himself in a theophany. She also realized that El Roi saw her in her distress and testified that He is a God who lives and sees all.

EL-OLAM [el-oh-lahm]: “Everlasting God” (Psalm 90:1-3) – God’s nature is without beginning or end, free from all constraints of time, and He contains within Himself the very cause of time itself. “From everlasting to everlasting, Thou art God.”

EL-GIBHOR [el-ghee-bohr]: “Mighty God” (Isaiah 9:6) – the name describing the Messiah, Christ Jesus, in this prophetic portion of Isaiah. As a powerful and mighty warrior, the Messiah, the Mighty God, will accomplish the destruction of God’s enemies and rule with a rod of iron (Revelation 19:15).

Who was Pilate? What did he state in a jesting manner?

Pontius Pilate was the Roman governor of Judea from A.D. 26-36, serving under Emperor Tiberius. He is most known for his involvement in condemning Jesus to death on a cross.

Outside of the four Gospels, Pontius Pilate is mentioned by Tacitus, Philo, and Josephus. In addition, the “Pilate Stone,” discovered in 1961 and dated c. A.D. 30, includes a description of Pontius Pilate and mentions him as “prefect” of Judea. Pilate is also mentioned in the apocryphal writings, but these were all written at much later dates.

In the Bible, Pontius Pilate is mentioned solely in connection with the trials and crucifixion of Jesus. The Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) portray Pilate as reluctant to crucify Jesus. Pilate calls the charges against Jesus “baseless” (Luke 23:14) and several times declares Jesus to be not guilty: “And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go.” Luke 23:22

Pilate’s conscience was already bothering him when his wife sent him an urgent message concerning Jesus. The note begged him, “When he was set down on the judgment seat, his wife sent unto him, saying, Have thou nothing to do with that just man: for I have suffered many things this day in a dream because of him.” Matthew 27:19

John’s Gospel offers more detail of the trial, including an additional conversation between Pilate and Jesus. Jesus acknowledges Himself as a king and claims to speak directly for the truth. Pilate responds with the famous question, “What is truth?” (John 18:38). The question intentionally communicated multiple meanings. Here was a situation in which truth was compromised in order to condemn an innocent man. Pilate, who is supposedly seeking the truth, asks the question of the One who is Himself “the way, the truth, and the life” (John 14:6). A human judge, confused about the truth, was about to condemn the Righteous Judge of the world.

In the end, Pilate sought a compromise. Knowing Jesus had been handed over by the religious leaders out of envy, he appealed to the crowds at the Passover, asking which “criminal” should be set free, Jesus or Barabbas? The leaders convinced the crowd to cry out for Barabbas (Matthew 27:20–21). Giving in to political pressure, Pilate authorized both the flogging and crucifixion of Jesus: “Wanting to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas to them. He had Jesus flogged, and handed him over to be crucified” (Mark 15:15).

Pilate had the charge against Jesus posted on the cross above Jesus’ head: “THIS IS JESUS, THE KING OF THE JEWS” (Matthew 27:37). As soon as Jesus died, Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for the body of Jesus in order to bury Him, and Pilate granted the request (John 19:38). The last glimpse we have of Pontius Pilate is when he assigns guards for Jesus’ tomb (Matthew 27:64-66).

Pontius Pilate’s brief appearance in Scripture is full of tragedy. He ignored his conscience, he disregarded the good advice of his wife, he chose political expediency over public rectitude, and he failed to recognize the truth even when Truth was standing right in front of him.